won its current northern territory. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were completely subjugated. Although relatively free of the coups and arbitrary governments that blighted South America, Chile endured a 16½-year long military dictatorship (1973–1990) that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.
Today, Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations, a recognized middle power and an emerging economy. It leads Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development and state of peace. However, it has a high economic inequality, as measured by the Gini index. In May 2010, Chile became the first South American nation to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States