Newcastle played a major role during the 19th-century Industrial Revolution,
and was a leading centre for coal mining and manufacturing. Heavy industries in
Newcastle declined in the second half of the 20th century; office, service and
retail employment are now the city's staples. The city is also today recognised
for its commitment to environmental issues, with a programme planned for
Newcastle to become "the first Carbon Neutral town".
Newcastle is the commercial, educational and, in partnership with nearby
Gateshead, the cultural focus for North East England. As part of Tyneside,