Travnik is located near the geographic center of Bosnia and Herzegovina at 44°14′N 17°40′E. The river Lašva passes through the city, flowing from west to east before joining the Bosna. Travnik itself is built in the large Lašva river valley, which connects the Bosna river valley in the east with the Vrbas river valley in the west.
Travnik is found 514 meters above sea level. Its most distinguishing geographic feature are its mountains, Vilenica and Vlašić. Vlašić, named after the Vlachs, is one of the tallest mountains in the country at 1933 meters (6342 ft)