Ballarat is a city located on the Yarrowee River and lower western plains of the Great Dividing Range in the state of Victoria, Australia, approximately 105 kilometres (65 mi) west-north-west of the state capital; Melbourne. With an estimated urban area population of just over 94,000 people, Ballarat is the third most populous urban area in the state. One of the Australia's most populated inland settlements, it is the most populous in the state and fifth in the country. People from Ballarat are referred to as Ballaratians
The City of Ballarat local government area which encompasses both the Greater Ballarat urban area and outlying towns spanning an area of 740 square kilometres (290 sq mi) and an estimated population of almost 100,000. Ballarat is its the most populous urban centre, the seat of local government and its administrative centre.
It was named by Scottish squatter Archibald Yuille established the first settlement, his sheep run called Ballaarat in 1837 with the name derived from local Wathaurong Aboriginal words for the area, balla arat, thought to mean "resting place". The present spelling was officially adopted by the City of Ballarat in 1996.
It is one of the most significant Victorian era boom towns in Australia. Just months after Victoria was granted separation from New South Wales, the Victorian gold rush transformed Ballarat from a small sheep station to a major settlement. Gold was discovered at Poverty Point on 18 August 1851 and news quickly spread of rich alluvial fields where gold could easily be extracted. Within months, approximately 20,000 migrants had rushed the district. Several Australian mining innovations were made at the Ballarat diggings including the first use of a Chilean mill in 1851 and the first use of a mine cage in 1861. Unlike many other gold rush boom towns, the Ballarat fields experienced sustained high gold yields for decades.
The Eureka Rebellion began in Ballarat and the only armed rebellion