Nonthaburi was declared a city in the middle of the 16th century, which was previously a village named Talat Khwan. During the reign of King Prasat Thong, a canal was dug to create a shortcut of the flow of the Chao Phraya. The river changed its flow into the new canal, which is still the riverbed today. In 1665 King Narai built a fortress, as the shorter riverway was giving enemies an easier way to the capital Ayutthaya. The town was then also moved near the fortress.
From 1943 to 1946 the province was incorporated into Bangkok