Today Naogaon District is considered the bread basket of Bangladesh. It is the central part of Borendra Region, with an area of about 3,435.67 square kilometres (1,326.52 sq mi), about 80% of which is under cultivation. The soil of the area is a fertile inorganic clay called dhoyass.
The total population of the area is about 25 lac, and most of the people of the district are farmers. The literacy rate is 44.39%. Crops grown in the district include paddy, jute, wheat, maize, sugar cane, potatoes, pulses, oil seeds, brinjal, onions, and garlic. The total production of paddy and what in 2009-2010 was 13,58,432 metric tons, including a surplus of 8,26,835 metric tons. Today it is the top listed district in the side of rice production and has the highest number of rice processing mills of any district