Bendigo is a major regional city in the state of Victoria, Australia, located very close to the geographical centre of the state and approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) north west of the state capital Melbourne. It is the second largest inland city and fourth most populous city in the state. The estimated urban population is approximately 90,000. It is the administrative centre for the City of Greater Bendigo which encompasses both the urban area and outlying towns spanning an area of approximately 3,000 square kilometres (1,158 sq mi) and over 100,000 people. Inhabitants of Bendigo are known as Bendigonians.
Originally taking its name from the Bendigo Creek, the name became official in 1891. Shortly afterwards, the term "Bendigonians" was coined to describe its residents.
Bendigo is one of the most significant Victorian era boom towns in Australia. Gold was discovered in 1851 at The Rocks on Bendigo Creek and the Bendigo Valley was found to be a rich alluvial field where gold could easily be extracted. News of the finds intensified the Victorian gold rush bringing an influx of migrants to the city from around the world within a year and transforming it from a station to a major settlement in the newly proclaimed Colony of Victoria.
Bendigo is notable for its Victorian architectural heritage and gold mining history. Since 1851 over 22 million ounces of gold have been extracted from its goldmines, making it the highest producing goldfield in Australia in the 19th century and the largest gold mining economy in eastern Australia. It is the largest finance centre in Victoria outside of Melbourne as home to Australia's only provincially headquartered retail bank, the Bendigo Bank, and the Bendigo Stock Exchange (BSX)